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 Warm Up


Warming up is an essential prerequisite for any sportsperson to face the physical load of the training session or competition.  Proper warming up is indispensable to the player to prepare him for the physical exertion and to prevent injuries. Warming up is the physiological as well as the psychological preparation of the player before the main event.  For performance in any sporting activity, a great deal of physical exertion is called for. In order to face the stress of a rigorous training session or a competition, the player needs a gradual transition from rest to intensive activity. If the player does not warm up properly, the required amount of blood will not be supplied to the arteries in time, leaving him fatigued after the first burst of activity and his stiff muscles may make him injury prone. Warm up exercises activate the muscles of the body by toning them up, increases flexibility by loosening the muscles and increases the heart rate. Arteries and capillaries open up to increase blood flow to the muscles, which in-turn activates the nervous system, reduce time for motor reaction and improve body coordination.

Warming up can be achieved either through active or passive means. Massage, hot water bath or steam bath are the passive means of warming up while physical activity such as walking, jogging, bending and stretching exercises constitute active warming up. For sports persons, passive warming up by itself will not be sufficient to bring the body heat to the required level. Active warming up is an essential pre-requisite for the sports person before undertaking any strenuous physical activity, be it a training session or the actual competition.


Studies have revealed that warming up has the psychological effect of motivating the player to give his best performance provided he enjoys the warming up experience and believes in the benefits of the warming up session. It is important that warming up methods are employed keeping in view the physical and nervous condition of the player and should be devised individually as far as possible especially for the elite sport persons. The player must guard against the warming up session becoming too much of a ritual but should adjust to changing conditions. Warming up exercises must be kept as simple as possible so that the player does not have any particular nervous or physical exertion while performing them. 

The player should have some relaxation between the warming up and the actual competition. Passive warming up such as a massage or a chemical rub down is considered beneficial between the active warming up and start of the main event. Care should be taken that the passive warm up / rest period is not for too long as this will have the adverse effect of warm down or cool down of the player before the main event. The factors that have a bearing on warming up are age, sex, weather conditions, experience and aptitude of the player. Warm up before a practise session tends to be longer as compared to a warming up session before the competition which is of shorter duration but more intense.

Warming up can be classified into two types, i.e., General Warming up and Specific Warming up. General warming up is for the total organism involving all parts of the body to loosen the muscles. The methods used for general warming up include jogging, callisthenic exercises for the neck, arms, shoulders, abdomen, legs and back followed by stretching exercise to limber up the muscles of the body. Stretching not only loosens the muscles of the body but strengthens the connecting tissues as well. The increased temperature through stretching exercises protects the body from muscle injuries during exercise. Gymnastic exercises are considered most suitable for general warming up since the player makes maximum use of his limbs to perform the exercises. 

Specific warming up prepares the player for the main task ahead. It is important that specific warming up exercises are chosen with care and should resemble the activity to be performed during the main event as far as possible. The number of repetitions of each specific warming up drill depends upon the complexity of the skill or technique that is to be used during the main activity. Drills for attack and defence, i.e., moves, footwork, various holds and techniques in attack should form the bulk of the specific warming up exercises. Each player should be aware of how to warm up in any given situation keeping in view the task ahead, time available and intensity of the exercises required to bring out his best competitive effort.    

Fitness Training

Physical fitness is a fundamental necessity for any sporting activity. Motor qualities such as speed, strength, endurance, flexibility and coordinative ability along with skills are essential for excellence in sports. Heavy emphasis is laid by sports trainers on improving the physical fitness and motor qualities of the players which is also known as conditioning.

A good fitness training programme is the back bone of the over–all training of the Kabaddi player. Kabaddi is a combative body contact sport which calls for explosive power, speed, endurance, strength, flexibility and quick reflexes. The sport demands general as well as specific warming up followed by conditioning categorized into general and specific fitness. General fitness refers to motor qualities such as speed, strength, flexibility, endurance & co-ordination, which are required by all sports and specific fitness for Kabaddi includes explosive strength, movement speed, quick reflexes.


Aerobic fitness, muscular fitness, stretching, core exercise and balance. A brief guide on ways & means to improve the five components of  itness in an individual is as follows:

Training Aerobic fitness

Aerobic exercise, also known as cardio or endurance activity, is the cornerstone of most fitness training programs. Aerobic exercise makes you breathe faster and more deeply, which maximizes the amount of oxygen in your blood. The better your aerobic fitness, the more efficiently your heart, lungs and blood vessels transport oxygen throughout your body — and the easier it is to complete routine physical tasks and rise to unexpected challenges.

Aerobic exercise includes any physical activity that uses large muscle groups and increases your heart rate. Try walking, jogging, biking, swimming, dancing. Aim for at least two hours and 30 minutes a week of moderate aerobic activity or one hour and 15 minutes a week of vigorous aerobic activity — preferably spread throughout the week.


Strength training

Muscular fitness is another key component of a fitness training program. Strength training at least twice a week can help you increase bone strength and muscular fitness. It can also help you maintain muscle mass during a weight-loss program.

Most fitness centres offer various resistance machines, free weights and other tools for strength training. But you don't need to invest in a gym membership or expensive equipment to reap the benefits of strength training. Hand-held weights or homemade weights — such as plastic soft drink bottles filled with water or sand — may work just as well. Resistance bands are another inexpensive option. Your own body weight counts, too. Try push-ups, abdominal crunches and leg squats.


The muscles in your abdomen, lower back and pelvis are known as your core muscles which helps in protecting the back and connect upper and lower body movements. Core strength is a key element of an all-round fitness training program


Aerobic Exercises

Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is also physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobicenergy-generating process. Aerobic literally means "relating to, involving, or requiring free oxygen",and refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise via aerobic metabolism. Generally, light-to-moderate intensity activities that are sufficiently supported by aerobic metabolism can be performed for extended periods of time.

Kenneth Cooper was the first person to introduce the concept of aerobic exercise. In the 1960s, Cooper started research into preventive medicine. He became intrigued by the belief that exercise can preserve one's health. In 1970 he created his own institute (the Cooper Institute) for non-profit research and education devoted to preventive medicine. He sparked millions into becoming active and is now known as the "father of aerobics" Aerobic exercise comprises innumerable forms. In general, it is performed at a moderate level of intensity over a relatively long period of time. [Wikipedia]


Stretching Exercises


Stretching is a form of physical exercise in which a specific muscle or tendon (or muscle group) is deliberately flexed or stretched in order to improve the muscle's felt elasticity and achieve comfortable muscle tone. The result is a feeling of increased muscle control, flexibility, and range of motion.


Increasing flexibility through stretching is one of the basic tenets of physical fitness. It is common for athletes to stretch before and after exercise in order to reduce risk of injury and increase performance.

There are four different types of stretching:

  1. Ballistic
  2. Dynamic,
  3. Proprioceptive
  4. Static stretching

Ballistic stretching is a rapid bouncing stretch in which a body part is moving with momentum that stretches the muscles to a maximum. Muscles respond to this type of stretching by contracting to protect itself from over extending.

Dynamic stretching is a walking or movement stretch. By performing slow controlled movements through full range of motion, a person reduces risk of injury

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is a type of stretch for a particular muscle and its specific job, so resistance should be applied, then the muscle should be relaxed.

Static stretching is a type of stretch whereby a person stretches the muscle until a gentle tension is felt and then holds the stretch for thirty seconds or until a muscle release is felt, without any movement or bouncing.

Medicine Ball Exercises


Improve Explosive Power with Medicine Ball Exercises

Medicine ball training has been around since the ancient Greeks discovered health benefits from exercising with weighted balls. It is one of the oldest forms of strength and conditioning used to improve health, explosive power, and speed. Medicine balls are versatile, portable and a fad that lasted the test of time. Several styles and sizes exist – some are made of rubber or leather, some absorb load, and others bounce really high. 

Power is the product of strength and speed or force and velocity. Therefore, the more powerful you are, the more force you can develop quickly. Research has shown us that the ability to generate maximal power typically results in enhanced performance. The medicine ball serves as an excellent tool that can be used to enhance your power output. The freedom of movement allows for endless variations of exercises that can be tailored to your needs and more importantly, it teaches the body to work as an integrated system, which is key for improving  sport performance.


The ability to produce maximum power depends on many characteristics that go far beyond the scope. However, when training power one should focus on movement coordination to move the medicine ball as fast as possible despite its weight.


An exercise ball, also known as a yoga ball, is a ball constructed of soft elastic with a diameter of approximately 35 to 85 centimeters and filled with air. The air pressure is changed by removing a valve stem and either filling with air or letting the ball deflate. Wikipedia

The exercise ball is also known as gym ball and Swiss ball used as a training aid for the stretching and strengthening of the abdominal, groin, lumbar (lower) back, and upper leg muscles of the body. 

Skipping Rope Exercises

Skipping Rope Exercises

Jumping rope is as challenging as you make it. There are endless jumping patterns and styles. I've heard some trainers describe the jump rope as boring. Anyone who describes the rope as boring does not know how to jump rope. There is always a new skill that you can learn to keep the conditioning session enjoyable and challenging.

Running in place with the rope is one of the easiest rope skipping patterns to learn. You will remain stationary, lifting the knees high with each turn of the rope. You will essentially be running in place with high knees, with the addition of a fast spinning rope. This style of rope work is easy to learn, and excellent for conditioning.

Rope climbing Exercises

Rope climbing Exercises


Rope Climbing 

Climbing a rope is an ancient exercise. It's such a simple action, but highly effective for physical development. There is a reason that the rope climb has been a staple exercise in military training and combat fitness for thousands of years. It is, quite simply, one of the best upper-body strength exercises available for body contact sports, where the grip strength is highly required. 


Specially for Kabaddi players Rope Climbing develops an iron grip and improve Tackling and Catching skills. 

Other rope climbing exercises:

  • Climbing rope with feet
  • Climbing rope without feet
  • Climbing two ropes simultaneously
  • Climbing upside down


Barbell Exercises


First of all, barbell exercises require few and relatively inexpensive equipments. Unlike gym exercise for which you need special equipments for each exercise you can perform most barbell exercises using a simple barbell, a set of weights and a workout bench. This also means that since barbell exercises take little room to perform, they can be performed anywhere; be it at home, at the gym, on the play field or wherever. 



As previously explained, one of the key benefits of doing barbell exercises is that they require little and relatively inexpensive equipment. 

Barbell exercises are performed using a barbell (i.e. a straight metal bar) and weight plates that are placed on both ends. You'll find barbell sets that let you put on different weight plate configurations and others that won't offer this option. These latter ones are called fixed weight barbell sets and are usually found in gyms. Both types let you perform every barbell exercises proposed on this website. 

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Warm down


Warming down or cooling down is the reverse of warming up and should immediately follow the main activity. Immediately after any vigorous activity, it is not advisable for the individual to suddenly stop all activity, lie down or take a shower. The purpose of warming down is to bring the body temperature to normal gradually. This can be achieved through light exercises such as walking, easy jogging and stretching.


A proper warm down session is a must after any vigorous activity since this will reduce the fatigue caused by the heavy load during the main task. The duration of the warm down session could be 05 to 10 minutes immediately after the main event whether it is a competition or a training session. Stretching exercises and deep breathing exercises are especially beneficial for Kabaddi players immediately after the main event. Lack of a proper warm down will reduce the recovery process and hamper the progress made during the training session. For warm down/ cool down, the player should avoid rapid movements such as hops, skips, jumps or difficult exercises involving strength but undertake light / easy exercises for optimum effect.