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 Warm Up

Warming up is an essential prerequisite for any sportsperson to face the physical load of the training session or competition.  Proper warming up is indispensable to the player to prepare him for the physical exertion and to prevent injuries. Warming up is the physiological as well as the psychological preparation of the player before the main event.  For performance in any sporting activity, a great deal of physical exertion is called for. In order to face the stress of a rigorous training session or a competition, the player needs a gradual transition from rest to intensive activity. If the player does not warm up properly, the required amount of blood will not be supplied to the arteries in time, leaving him fatigued after the first burst of activity and his stiff muscles may make him injury prone. Warm up exercises activate the muscles of the body by toning them up, increases flexibility by loosening the muscles and increases the heart rate. Arteries and capillaries open up to increase blood flow to the muscles, which in-turn activates the nervous system, reduce time for motor reaction and improve body coordination.

Warming up can be achieved either through active or passive means. Massage, hot water bath or steam bath are the passive means of warming up while physical activity such as walking, jogging, bending and stretching exercises constitute active warming up. For sports persons, passive warming up by itself will not be sufficient to bring the body heat to the required level. Active warming up is an essential pre-requisite for the sports person before undertaking any strenuous physical activity, be it a training session or the actual competition.


Studies have revealed that warming up has the psychological effect of motivating the player to give his best performance provided he enjoys the warming up experience and believes in the benefits of the warming up session. It is important that warming up methods are employed keeping in view the physical and nervous condition of the player and should be devised individually as far as possible especially for the elite sport persons. The player must guard against the warming up session becoming too much of a ritual but should adjust to changing conditions. Warming up exercises must be kept as simple as possible so that the player does not have any particular nervous or physical exertion while performing them. 


The player should have some relaxation between the warming up and the actual competition. Passive warming up such as a massage or a chemical rub down is considered beneficial between the active warming up and start of the main event. Care should be taken that the passive warm up / rest period is not for too long as this will have the adverse effect of warm down or cool down of the player before the main event. The factors that have a bearing on warming up are age, sex, weather conditions, experience and aptitude of the player. Warm up before a practise session tends to be longer as compared to a warming up session before the competition which is of shorter duration but more intense.


Warming up can be classified into two types, i.e., General Warming up and Specific Warming up. General warming up is for the total organism involving all parts of the body to loosen the muscles. The methods used for general warming up include jogging, callisthenic exercises for the neck, arms, shoulders, abdomen, legs and back followed by stretching exercise to limber up the muscles of the body. Stretching not only loosens the muscles of the body but strengthens the connecting tissues as well. The increased temperature through stretching exercises protects the body from muscle injuries during exercise. Gymnastic exercises are considered most suitable for general warming up since the player makes maximum use of his limbs to perform the exercises. 



Specific warming up prepares the player for the main task ahead. It is important that specific warming up exercises are chosen with care and should resemble the activity to be performed during the main event as far as possible. The number of repetitions of each specific warming up drill depends upon the complexity of the skill or technique that is to be used during the main activity. Drills for attack and defence, i.e., moves, footwork, various holds and techniques in attack should form the bulk of the specific warming up exercises. Each player should be aware of how to warm up in any given situation keeping in view the task ahead, time available and intensity of the exercises required to bring out his best competitive effort.    

Fitness Training

Physical fitness is a fundamental necessity for any sporting activity. Motor qualities such as speed, strength, endurance, flexibility and coordinative ability along with skills are essential for excellence in sports. Heavy emphasis is laid by sports trainers on improving the physical fitness and motor qualities of the players which is also known as conditioning.


A good fitness training programme is the back bone of the over–all training of the Kabaddi player. Kabaddi is a combative body contact sport which calls for explosive power, speed, endurance, strength, flexibility and quick reflexes. The sport demands general as well as specific warming up followed by conditioning categorized into general and specific fitness. General fitness refers to motor qualities such as speed, strength, flexibility, endurance & co-ordination, which are required by all sports and specific fitness for Kabaddi includes explosive strength, movement speed, quick reflexes.



Aerobic fitness, muscular fitness, stretching, core exercise and balance. A brief guide on ways & means to improve the five components of  itness in an individual is as follows:

Training Aerobic fitness

Aerobic exercise, also known as cardio or endurance activity, is the cornerstone of most fitness training programs. Aerobic exercise makes you breathe faster and more deeply, which maximizes the amount of oxygen in your blood. The better your aerobic fitness, the more efficiently your heart, lungs and blood vessels transport oxygen throughout your body — and the easier it is to complete routine physical tasks and rise to unexpected challenges.

Aerobic exercise includes any physical activity that uses large muscle groups and increases your heart rate. Try walking, jogging, biking, swimming, dancing. Aim for at least two hours and 30 minutes a week of moderate aerobic activity or one hour and 15 minutes a week of vigorous aerobic activity — preferably spread throughout the week.

Strength training

Muscular fitness is another key component of a fitness training program. Strength training at least twice a week can help you increase bone strength and muscular fitness. It can also help you maintain muscle mass during a weight-loss program.

Most fitness centres offer various resistance machines, free weights and other tools for strength training. But you don't need to invest in a gym membership or expensive equipment to reap the benefits of strength training. Hand-held weights or homemade weights — such as plastic soft drink bottles filled with water or sand — may work just as well. Resistance bands are another inexpensive option. Your own body weight counts, too. Try push-ups, abdominal crunches and leg squats.

Core exercises

The muscles in your abdomen, lower back and pelvis — known as your core muscles — help protect your back and connect upper and lower body movements. Core strength is a key element of a well-rounded fitness training program.















Aerobic Exercises

Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is also physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobicenergy-generating process. Aerobic literally means "relating to, involving, or requiring free oxygen",and refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise via aerobic metabolism. Generally, light-to-moderate intensity activities that are sufficiently supported by aerobic metabolism can be performed for extended periods of time.

Kenneth Cooper was the first person to introduce the concept of aerobic exercise. In the 1960s, Cooper started research into preventive medicine. He became intrigued by the belief that exercise can preserve one's health. In 1970 he created his own institute (the Cooper Institute) for non-profit research and education devoted to preventive medicine. He sparked millions into becoming active and is now known as the "father of aerobics" Aerobic exercise comprises innumerable forms. In general, it is performed at a moderate level of intensity over a relatively long period of time. [Wikipedia]

Stretching Exercises


Stretching is a form of physical exercise in which a specific muscle or tendon (or muscle group) is deliberately flexed or stretched in order to improve the muscle's felt elasticity and achieve comfortable muscle tone. The result is a feeling of increased muscle control, flexibility, and range of motion.

Increasing flexibility through stretching is one of the basic tenets of physical fitness. It is common for athletes to stretch before and after exercise in order to reduce risk of injury and increase performance.

There are four different types of stretching:

  1. Ballistic
  2. Dynamic,
  3. Proprioceptive
  4. Static stretching

Ballistic stretching is a rapid bouncing stretch in which a body part is moving with momentum that stretches the muscles to a maximum. Muscles respond to this type of stretching by contracting to protect itself from over extending.

Dynamic stretching is a walking or movement stretch. By performing slow controlled movements through full range of motion, a person reduces risk of injury

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is a type of stretch for a particular muscle and its specific job, so resistance should be applied, then the muscle should be relaxed.

Static stretching is a type of stretch whereby a person stretches the muscle until a gentle tension is felt and then holds the stretch for thirty seconds or until a muscle release is felt, without any movement or bouncing.


Medicine Ball Exercises


Improve Explosive Power with Medicine Ball Exercises

Medicine ball training has been around since the ancient Greeks discovered health benefits from exercising with weighted balls. It is one of the oldest forms of strength and conditioning used to improve health, explosive power, and speed. Medicine balls are versatile, portable and a fad that lasted the test of time. Several styles and sizes exist – some are made of rubber or leather, some absorb load, and others bounce really high. But how can a weighted sphere be so simple, yet have the potential to be so functional?

Power, in relation to exercise and athletics, is the product of strength and speed or force and velocity. Therefore, the more powerful you are, the more force you can develop quickly. Research has shown us that the ability to generate maximal power typically results in enhanced athletic performance1. The medicine ball serves as an excellent tool that can be used to enhance your power output. The freedom of movement allows for endless variations of exercises that can be tailored to your needs and more importantly, it teaches the body to work as an integrated system, which is key for improving athleticism and sport performance.


The ability to produce maximal power depends on many characteristics that go far beyond the scope of this article; however, your goals when training power should focus on movement coordination and efficiency with the ballistic intent to move the medicine ball as fast as humanly possible despite its weight. Force depends on your ability to recruit what are called high threshold motor units, which are muscle fibers that have the ability to contract very fast and explosively2. This ability is also known as neuromuscular efficiency and is enhanced with explosive medicine ball training.

Skipping Rope Exercises

Skipping Rope Exercises


After you find a good rope, you need to find a place to use it. I recommend jumping rope on a shock absorbent surface such as a wood floor, gym mat, outdoor track or tennis court. If you train at a boxing gym, you may wish to jump rope inside the ring. The ring surface is forgiving to the ankles and feet.

You can also purchase an interlocking foam mat that lies on top of your floor surface. These mats are useful if your gym has a concrete floor. The interlocking foam forms a temporary jumping surface. Try to avoid jumping rope on unforgiving surfaces such as concrete flooring.

In addition to a shock absorbing surface, you should wear a quality pair or cross-training shoes when skipping rope. I do not recommend wearing your boxing or wrestling shoes when jumping rope. Such shoes do not provide much cushion for the feet. Stick with quality cross-trainers when using the rope.

Start with frequent, yet short jump-rope sessions. For example, start with 20-second intervals on the rope. Just try to skip for 20 seconds without tripping on the rope. Keep the intervals brief, and stop before fatigue mounts.

View these sessions as skill-based workouts. You are learning a new skill (rope skipping). The body is much more capable of learning when it is fresh, not fatigued.

Perform these skill emphasis sessions regularly. Frequent practice is recommended. Eventually, you will move past 20 seconds, and begin working with 1, 2, and 3-minute rounds. Many boxers will skip rope for several rounds during each training session. 30-to-60 seconds of rest will separate each round.

For example:

  • 6 x 3 minutes jump rope
  • Rest 60 seconds between rounds


Jumping rope is as challenging as you make it. There are endless jumping patterns and styles. I've heard some trainers describe the jump rope as boring. Anyone who describes the rope as boring does not know how to jump rope. There is always a new skill that you can learn to keep the conditioning session enjoyable and challenging.

Running in place with the rope is one of the easiest rope skipping patterns to learn. You will remain stationary, lifting the knees high with each turn of the rope. You will essentially be running in place with high knees, with the addition of a fast spinning rope. This style of rope work is easy to learn, and excellent for conditioning.

Double unders are another popular skipping pattern. To perform a double under, you will make two turns of the rope for every one jump. Keep the feet together, jumping with both feet at the same time. This style of skipping is more difficult to learn.

Do not attempt double unders until you become proficient with the running in place variation. Eventually, you can begin performing one or two double unders, at the conclusion of a running in place sequence. For example, spin the rope 10 times while running in place, and then finish with 1 or 2 double unders.

Stop and repeat this sequence several times. The next step is to perform a double under without losing control of the rope. Rather than stopping after the double under, you will continue by transitioning back to running in place with the rope (without stopping). In time, you will develop the ability to perform several consecutive double unders.

To add to the coordination requirements of rope skipping, you can begin working with criss-cross patterns. You can perform a criss-cross while performing double unders or with the traditional running in place style of rope work.

To perform a criss-cross, you will cross the arms at the elbows on the downward swing of the rope. Jump through the loop of the rope that is formed in front of your body. Uncross the arms on the next downward swing. Continue to criss-cross the rope in this alternating fashion.

The criss-cross offers one way to interrupt the monotony of continuous rope skipping. You can integrate a criss-cross to spice up the rope session. You will eventually develop the skill to quickly integrate criss-crosses with high-speed rope turning.

These jump rope styles are just three of countless variations. I encourage you to develop new jumping styles (ex. one leg double unders). Continue to challenge yourself with new rope skipping patterns. Do not limit yourself to the same style of rope work (ex. running in place). Mix it up to promote improvements in coordination and agility.

One way to incorporate variety is by traveling frontward, backward, and side-to-side. For example, run in place with the rope while traveling around the perimeter of a square. Move forward, sideways (right), backward and then sideways (left), ending back at the starting point.

By incorporating frontward, backward, and lateral movement, you will improve footwork and agility, while simultaneously improving endurance.


There are several options for jump rope workouts. The most obvious choice is to train with the rope for timed rounds. For example, many boxers will train with 2 or 3-minute rounds. During the round, they will alternate between faster-paced work (ex. double unders) and less-intense skipping (ex. jogging or running in place with the rope).

This style of rope work will mimic the physical demands of an actual boxing round. Each round contains intense moments (ex. throwing punches) followed by lulls in activity (ex. circling the ring).

You can use the rope to replicate these physical demands. With regular practice, you will be able to maintain a fast pace throughout the round.

Another option is to perform full speed intervals with the rope. For example, you will spin the rope as fast as possible for 60 seconds.

Stick with a full speed run in place style of spinning or double unders. There should be no lulls in activity. Maintain a full speed effort.

You can then rest 20-to-60 seconds between intervals. The amount of rest will depend largely on your level of conditioning and proficiency with the rope. Strive to improve your work rate per round, while decreasing the rest required between intervals. A sample workout could consist of 6 x 1-minute intervals, each separated by 30 seconds of rest.

Another option is to use the rope as part of a circuit training routine. You can mix and match rope work with several bodyweight exercises to develop a brief, yet intense conditioning routine.One routine could include the following:

  • 100 Rope Turns
  • 10 Burpees
  • 10 Pushups
  • 10 Bodyweight Squats

Repeat the circuit 10 times.

For this circuit, you will work through these 4 exercises as fast as possible. Your goal is complete 10 circuits, resting only when necessary. Advanced athletes will be able to work through the entire routine without stopping.

Another option is to combine circuit work with timed rounds. For example, perform the following sequence as many times as possible during a 2 or 3-minute round:

  • 50 Double Unders
  • 5 Burpees

Perform 4 rounds, resting 1 minute between rounds.

Jump rope training can also be performed as a finisher. Simply close the workout with a 5 or 10-minute round. Work to maintain a fast pace throughout the extended interval. The use of an intense finishing movement will ensure the workout was of adequate intensity. In addition to building endurance, the finisher will enhance mental toughness.

You will be forced to 'finish' with one last display of endurance and agility. Many finishers such as a heavy sandbag carry do not require agility and coordination. The jump rope is different. It is not enough to display endurance. You must also remain cognizant of tripping over the rope.

skill-based finisher has obvious benefits. Consider an athlete who must fight hard during one final round. It is not enough to plunge forward without skill. The athlete must display skill despite the unbearable fatigue. The jump rope is just one of many ways to train this ability.

Rope climbing Exercises

Rope climbing Exercises








Rope Climbing 

Climbing a rope is an ancient exercise. It's such a simple action, but highly effective for physical development. There is a reason that the rope climb has been a staple exercise in military training and combat fitness for thousands of years - it is, quite simply, one of the best upper-body strength exercises available to you. 

You will need a decent level of fitness before successfully practicing the rope climb. Many people approach the ropes with the tenacity and enthusiasm of their gym class days, when they scaled the school ropes with ease, only, as an adult to be left as a frustrated mess on the floor. Building up the strength to support this exercise is highly worthwhile as you'll target many muscle groups (arms, shoulders, abs, back...).

Specially for Kabaddi players Rope Climbing develops an iron grip and improve coordination and agility skills. The rope climb has a real biceps dominance - check-out the biceps development of any consistent rope climber and they will be light-years ahead of average gym-goers. 

Rope climbing isn't an easy exercise and it's typically reserved for the fittest amongst us. You will need to be in decent physical shape to accomplish it, but it's worth the effort to learn.

Solid exercises you should develop competency in to help prepare you for the strength demands of the rope climb are -

  • Pull-ups - for developing muscles for lifting your own body weight.  
  • Push-ups - for general development of the upper-body muscles with particular focus on building endurance levels.
  • Sled pulls - for training similar muscles to the rope climb using weights you're comfortable with.

Other rope climbing exercises

  • Climbing rope with feet
  • Climbing rope without feet
  • Climbing two ropes simultaneously
  • Climbing upside down


Barbell Exercises


First of all, barbell exercises require few and relatively inexpensive equipments. Unlike gym exercise for which you need special equipments for each exercise you can perform most barbell exercises using a simple barbell, a set of weights and a workout bench. This also means that since barbell exercises take little room to perform, they can be performed anywhere; be it at home, at the gym, on the play field or wherever. 


As previously explained, one of the key benefits of doing barbell exercises is that they require little and relatively inexpensive equipment. 

Barbell exercises are performed using a barbell (i.e. a straight metal bar) and weight plates that are placed on both ends. You'll find barbell sets that let you put on different weight plate configurations and others that won't offer this option. These latter ones are called fixed weight barbell sets and are usually found in gyms. Both types let you perform every barbell exercises proposed on this website. 

Warm down


Warming down or cooling down is the reverse of warming up and should immediately follow the main activity. Immediately after any vigorous activity, it is not advisable for the individual to suddenly stop all activity, lie down or take a shower. The purpose of warming down is to bring the body temperature to normal gradually. This can be achieved through light exercises such as walking, easy jogging and stretching.


A proper warm down session is a must after any vigorous activity since this will reduce the fatigue caused by the heavy load during the main task. The duration of the warm down session could be 05 to 10 minutes immediately after the main event whether it is a competition or a training session. Stretching exercises and deep breathing exercises are especially beneficial for Kabaddi players immediately after the main event. Lack of a proper warm down will reduce the recovery process and hamper the progress made during the training session. For warm down/ cool down, the player should avoid rapid movements such as hops, skips, jumps or difficult exercises involving strength but undertake light / easy exercises for optimum effect.